What is Anatomical Plane?
An anatomical plane is a hypothetical plane used to transect the body, in order to describe the location of structures or the direction of movements.
There are three principal planes used to transect the human body.
- Sagittal Plane
- Coronal Plane
- Transverse Plane
Sagittal plane — a vertical line which divides the body into left and right.
Coronal plane — a vertical line which divides the body into a front (anterior) section and back (posterior) section. Belly and back section.The other name of Coronal plane is Frontal Plane.
Transverse plane — a horizontal line which divides the body into an upper (superior) section and a lower (inferior) section.
Movements occurring in Planes
Extension and flexion happen along the sagittal plane.
This means most running, biking, rowing, and lifting movements make use of this plane. For example, in a squat, both hips move from extension into flexion, and back into extension.
Adduction and Abduction happen along the frontal plane.
The frontal plane motion would include leaning from left to right as side bend and lateral raises. For example, hip adduction and abduction and elevation and depression of shoulder girdle.
Rotation happens along the transverse plane.
An example of a transverse plane exercise would be floor to overhead diagonals with a medicine ball, and a transverse activity might be swinging a golf club.
The standard position in which the body is standing with feet together, arms to the side, and head, eyes, and palms facing forward.